Here's an interesting point of view by The Gait Guys. I'm into brain research/training in the course of my clinical practice, so this was nice to see. They give some of the rationale I use for no longer advising orthotics as we (and Podiatrists) are taught in school. I don't just tell everyone with back pain to wear a back brace all day, so why give people with foot pain as a first line of defense? We start now with foot strengthening and mobilization. Some people will need orthotics in the end, but better to avoid them if possible.
They also briefly mention children and footwear. Finding protective footwear that is functional is starting to be a little difficult for our toddler.
Neurodevelopment of the Barefoot Brain
To sum it up: if you don't use it, you lose it. (You can, however, work to get it back!)